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Below you will find manuscripts (newest first) published in journals, proceedings, and book chapters, respectively.The latest papers may not yet be formally published.

Journal and Magazine Publications

  1. P. Ralph, S. Baltes, G. Adisaputri, R. Torkar, V. Kovalenko, M. Kalinowski, … R. Alkadhi. Pandemic programming: How COVID-19 affects software developers and how their organizations can help. Empirical Software Engineering, 2020, 10.1007/s10664-020-09875-y
  2. A. Yasin, R. Fatima, L. Wen, W. Afzal, M. Azhar, and R. Torkar. On using grey literature and Google Scholar in systematic literature reviews in software engineering. IEEE Access, 8(1):36226–36243, 2020, 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2971712
  3. Note: Also accepted to Journal First track at the 42nd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2020).
  4. C. A. Furia, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. Bayesian data analysis in empirical software engineering research. Transactions on Software Engineering, accepted for publication, 2019, 10.1109/TSE.2019.2935974
  5. E. Mellblom, I. Arason, L. Gren, and R. Torkar. The connection between burnout and personality types in software developers. IEEE Software, 36(5):57–64, 2019, 10.1109/MS.2019.2924769
  6. F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, R. Torkar, R. Feldt, L. Gren, C. A. Furia, and Z. Huang. Evolution of statistical analysis in empirical software engineering research: Current state and steps forward. Journal of Systems and Software, 156():246–267, 2019, 10.1016/j.jss.2019.07.002
  7. Process overviewOverview of ISBST (Marculescu et al., 2018).
  8. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, R. Torkar, and S. Poulding. Transferring interactive search-based software testing to industry. Journal of Systems and Software, 142():156–170, 2018, 10.1016/j.jss.2018.04.061
  9. L. Gren, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. Group development and group maturity when building agile teams: A qualitative and quantitative investigation at eight large companies. Journal of Systems and Software, 124():104–119, 2017, 10.1016/j.jss.2016.11.024
  10. F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, R. Torkar, and P. D. L. Machado. Full modification coverage through automatic similarity-based test case selection. Information and Software Technology, 80():124–137, 2016, 10.1016/j.infsof.2016.08.008
  11. B. Marculescu, S. Poulding, R. Feldt, K. Petersen, and R. Torkar. Tester interactivity makes a difference in search-based software engineering: A controlled experiment. Information and Software Technology, 78():66–82, 2016, 10.1016/j.infsof.2016.05.009
  12. Process overviewStudy selection process (Afzal et al., 2016).
  13. W. Afzal, S. Alone, K. Glocksien, and R. Torkar. Software test process improvement approaches: A systematic literature review and an industrial case study. Journal of Systems and Software, 111():1–33, 2016, 10.1016/j.jss.2015.08.048
  14. L. Gren, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. The prospects of a quantitative measurement of agility: A validation study on an agile maturity model. Journal of Systems and Software, 107():38–49, 2015, 10.1016/j.jss.2015.05.008
  15. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, R. Torkar, and S. Poulding. An initial industrial evaluation of interactive search-based testing for embedded software. Applied Soft Computing, 29():26–39, 2015, 10.1016/j.asoc.2014.12.025
  16. N. E. Holt, L. Briand, and R. Torkar. Empirical evaluations on the cost-effectiveness of state-based testing: An industrial case study. Information and Software Technology, 56(8):890–910, 2014, 10.1016/j.infsof.2014.02.011
  17. W. Afzal, A. N. Ghazi, J. Itkonen, R. Torkar, A. Andrews, and K. Bhatti. An experiment on the effectiveness and efficiency of exploratory testing. Empirical Software Engineering, 20(3):844–878, 2015, 10.1007/s10664-014-9301-4
  18. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, R. Feldt, and T. Gorschek. Prediction of faults-slip-through in large software projects: An empirical evaluation. Software Quality Journal, 22(1):51–86, 2014, 10.1007/s11219-013-9205-3
  19. Mutant reductionRatio of equivalent mutant reduction to the project’s branch coverage (Madeyski et al., 2013).
  20. L. Madeyski, W. Orzeszyna, R. Torkar, and M. Józala. Overcoming the equivalent mutant problem: A systematic literature review and a comparative experiment of second order mutation. Transactions on Software Engineering, 40(1):23–42, 2013, 10.1109/TSE.2013.44
  21. E. Rogstad, L. Briand, and R. Torkar. Test case selection for black-box regression testing of database applications. Information and Software Technology, 55(10):1781–1795, 2013, 10.1016/j.infsof.2013.04.004
  22. D. Radjenović, M. Heričko, R. Torkar, and A. Živkovič. Software fault prediction metrics: A systematic literature review. Information and Software Technology, 55(8):1397–1418, 2013, 10.1016/j.infsof.2013.02.009
  23. H. Edison, N. bin Ali, and R. Torkar. Towards innovation measurement in the software industry. Journal of Systems and Software, 86(5):1390–1407, 2013, 10.1016/j.jss.2013.01.013
  24. S. Nidhra, M. Yanamadala, W. Afzal, and R. Torkar. Knowledge transfer challenges and mitigation strategies in global software development—A systematic literature review and industrial validation. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2):333–355, 2012, 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2012.11.004
  25. Prioritization hierarchyOverlapping prioritization item hierarchy (Riņķevičs & Torkar, 2012).
  26. K. Riņķevičs and R. Torkar. Equality in cumulative voting: A systematic review with an improvement proposal. Information and Software Technology, 55(2):267–287, 2012, 10.1016/j.infsof.2012.08.004
  27. S. Schneider, R. Torkar, and T. Gorschek. Solutions in global software engineering: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Information Management, 33(1):119–132, 2012, 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2012.06.002
  28. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. Resampling methods in software quality classification. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (Special Issue on Emerging synergies of AI and SE), 22(2):203–223, 2012, 10.1142/S0218194012400037
  29. R. Torkar, T. Gorschek, R. Feldt, M. Svahnberg, U. A. Raja, and K. Kamran. Requirements traceability: A systematic review and industry case study. International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, 22(3):1–49, 2012, 10.1142/S0218194012005846
  30. R. Berntsson Svensson, T. Gorschek, B. Regnell, R. Torkar, A. Shahrokni, and R. Feldt. Quality requirements in industrial practice: An extended interview study at eleven companies. Transactions on Software Engineering, 38(4):923–935, 2012, 10.1109/TSE.2011.47
  31. Distribution of primary studiesDistribution of primary studies (Afzal & Torkar, 2011).
  32. W. Afzal and R. Torkar. On the application of genetic programming for software engineering predictive modeling: A systematic review. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(9):11984–11997, 2011, 10.1016/j.eswa.2011.03.041
  33. T. Gorschek, A. Gomes, A. Pettersson, and R. Torkar. Introduction of a process maturity model for market-driven product management and requirements engineering. Journal of Software Maintenance and Evolution: Research and Practice, 24(1):83–113, 2011, 10.1002/smr.535
  34. R. Torkar, P. Minoves, and J. Garrigós. Adopting free/libre/open source software practices, techniques and methods for industrial use. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 12(1), 2011, http://aisel.aisnet.org/jais/vol12/iss1/1/
  35. ClustersClusters in a 3D factor space after factor analysis (Feldt et al., 2010).
  36. R. Feldt, L. Angelis, R. Torkar, and M. Samuelsson. Links between the personalities, views and attitudes of software engineers. Information and Software Technology, 52(6):611–624, 2010, 10.1016/j.infsof.2010.01.001
  37. M. Svahnberg, T. Gorschek, R. Feldt, R. Torkar, S. B. Saleem, and M. U. Shafique. A systematic review on strategic release planning models. Information and Software Technology, 52(3):237–248, 2010, 10.1016/j.infsof.2009.11.006
  38. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. A systematic review of search-based testing for non-functional system properties. Information and Software Technology, 51(6):957–976, 2009, 10.1016/j.infsof.2008.12.005
  39. M. Hildingson and R. Torkar. Bringing the monkey to the iPAQ. .NET Developer’s Journal, (Aug. 2003). SYS-CON Media, Inc.

Conference and Workshop Proceedings

  1. N. bin Ali, H. Edison, and R. Torkar, “The impact of a proposal for innovation measurement in the software industry,” In 2020 IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), Oct. 5–9, 2020. 10.1145/3382494.3422163
  2. J. Sundell, R. Torkar, K. Lundqvist, and H. Forsberg. “Prediction of undetected faults in safety-critical software,” In 2019 IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), April 22–23, 2019. 10.1109/ICSTW.2019.00069
  3. F. Dobslaw, R. Feldt, D. Michaëlsson, P. Haar, F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, and R. Torkar. “Estimating return on investment for GUI test automation tools,” In Proceedings of the 30th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE’19), Oct. 28–31, 2019. 10.1109/ISSRE.2019.00035
  4. Likert data analysisAnalyzing Likert scale data. (Berntsson Svensson et al., 2019).
  5. R. Berntsson Svensson, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “The unfulfilled potential of data-driven decision making in agile software development,” In Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming (XP 2019). Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing, vol. 355. May 21–25, 2019. 10.1007/978-3-030-19034-7_5
  6. R. Feldt, F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, and R. Torkar. “Ways of applying artificial intelligence in software engineering,” In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Realizing Artificial Intelligence Synergies in Software Engineering (RAISE’18), May 27, 2018. 10.1145/3194104.3194109
  7. M. Felderer, B. Marculescu, F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “A testability analysis framework for non-functional properties,” In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’18)—2nd International Workshop on Testing Extra-Functional Properties and Quality Characteristics of Software Systems, April 9, 2018. 10.1109/ICSTW.2018.00028
  8. L. Nakyanzi Gwosuta, R. Darwish, and R. Torkar. “A short report from an experiment on improving functional test coverage maximization in the automotive industry,” In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’17)—Industry track, March 13–17, 2017.
  9. M. Irshad, R. Torkar, K. Petersen, and W. Afzal. “Capturing cost avoidance through reuse: Systematic review and industrial evaluation,” In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE’16), June 1–3, 2016. 10.1145/2915970.2915989
  10. Box plotsNovelty Search algorithm behavior with different number of optimization steps (Marculescu et al., 2016).
  11. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “Using exploration focused techniques to augment search-based software testing: An experimental evaluation,” In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’16), April 10–15, 2016. 10.1109/ICST.2016.26
  12. L. Gren, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. “Group maturity and agility, are they connected?—A survey study,” In Proceedings of the 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA’15), Aug. 26–28, 2015. 10.1109/SEAA.2015.3
  13. F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, R. Torkar, and P. D. L. Machado. “An initiative to improve reproducibility and empirical evaluation of software testing techniques,” In Proceedings of the 37th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’15)—New Ideas and Emerging Results, May 20–22, 2015. 10.1109/ICSE.2015.197
  14. E. Lindqvist, H. Larsson, and R. Torkar. “Outliers and replication in software engineering,” In Proceedings of the 21st Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC’14), Dec. 1–4, 2014. 10.1109/APSEC.2014.40
  15. N. A. Ghazi, J. Andersson, R. Torkar, K. Petersen, and J Börstler. “Information sources and their importance to prioritize test cases in heterogeneous systems context,” In Proceedings of the 21st European Conference on Systems, Software and Services Process Improvement (EuroSPI’14), June 25–27, 2014. 10.1007/978-3-662-43896-1_8
  16. L. Gren, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. “Work motivational challenges regarding the interface between agile teams and a non-agile surrounding organization: A case study,” In Proceedings of Agile 2014, July 28–August 1, 2014. 10.1109/AGILE.2014.13
  17. System overviewOverview of the ISBST system (Marculescu et al., 2013).
  18. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “Objective re-weighting to guide an interactive search based software testing system,” In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Machine Learning and Applications (ICMLA’13), Dec. 4–7, 2013. 10.1109/ICMLA.2013.113
  19. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “Practitioner-oriented visualization in an interactive search-based software test creation tool,” In Proceedings of the 20th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC’13), Dec. 2–5, 2013. 10.1109/APSEC.2013.120
  20. F. Gomes de Oliveira Neto, R. Feldt, R. Torkar, and P. D. L. Machado. “Searching for models to evaluate software technology,” In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Combining Modelling and Search-Based Software Engineering, co-located with the 35th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE’13), May 18–26, 2013. 10.1109/CMSBSE.2013.6604430
  21. Distribution concerning preperation timeDistribution concerning preperation time (Holt et al., 2012).
  22. N. E. Holt, R. Torkar, L. Briand, and K. Hansen. “State-based testing: Industrial evaluation of the cost effectiveness of round-trip path and sneak-path testing strategies,” In Proceedings of the 23rd International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE’12), Nov. 27–30, 2012. 10.1109/ISSRE.2012.17
  23. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “A concept for an interactive search-based software testing system,” In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Search-Based Software Engineering (SSBSE’12), Sept. 28–30, 2012. 10.1007/978-3-642-33119-0_21
  24. E. Engström, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “Indirect effects in evidential assessment: A case study on regression test technology adoption,” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Evidential Assessment of Software Technologies(EAST’12), 22 Sept. 2012. 10.1145/2372233.2372239
  25. J. Pelto-Piri, P. Molin, and R. Torkar. “A unified model for server usage and operational costs based on user profiles: An industrial evaluation,” In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE’12), July 1–3, 2012.
  26. B. Marculescu, R. Feldt, R. Torkar, L.-G. Green, T. Liljegren, and E. Hult. “Flexible and low-cost measurements for space software development—The measurements exploration framework," In Proceedings of the 2011 Data Systems in Space (DASIA’11), May 17–20, 2011.
  27. Criteria when prioritizing by numerical assignmentCriteria when prioritizing by numerical assignment (Berntsson Svensson et al., 2011).
  28. R. Berntsson Svensson, T. Gorschek, B. Regnell, R. Torkar, A. Shahrokni, R. Feldt, and A. Aurum. “Prioritization of quality requirements: State of practice in eleven companies,” In Proceedings of the 19th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE’11), Aug. 29–Sept. 2, 2011. 10.1109/RE.2011.6051652
  29. S. Mairhofer, R. Feldt, and R. Torkar. “Search-based software testing and test data generation for a dynamic programming language,” In Proceedings of the 13th annual conference on Genetic and evolutionary computation (GECCO’11), July 12–16, 2011. 10.1145/2001576.2001826
  30. R. Torkar, N. M. Awan, A. K. Alvi, and W. Afzal. “Predicting software test effort in iterative development using a dynamic Bayesian network,” In Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE’10), (Industry Practice Track), Nov. 1–4, 2010.
  31. Predicted vs. actual fault count dataPlot of predicted vs. actual FST values at the system testing phase (Afzal et al., 2010).
  32. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, R. Feldt, and G. Wikstrand. “Search-based prediction of fault-slip-through in large software projects,” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE’10), Sept. 7–9, 2010. 10.1109/SSBSE.2010.19
  33. R. Feldt, J. Schulte, P. Preissing, B. Marculescu, R. Torkar, and E. Hult. “Optimizing verification and validation activities for software in the space industry," In Proceedings of the 2010 Data Systems in Space (DASIA’10), July 1–4, 2010.
  34. R. Feldt, R. Torkar, E. Ahmad, and B. Raza. “Challenges with software verification and validation activities in the space industry," In Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’10), April 6–10, 2010. 10.1109/ICST.2010.37
  35. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. “Search-based prediction of fault count data," In Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on Search Based Software Engineering (SBSE’09), May 13–15, 2009. 10.1109/SSBSE.2009.17
  36. R. Torkar, T. Gorschek, and R. Feldt. “Eight conference on software engineering research and practice in Sweden (SERPS’08),” SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes 34(2), pp. 31–33, 2009. 10.1145/1517459.1517461
  37. R. Feldt, C. Wohlin, C. Gencel, T. Gorschek, L. Kuzniarz, D. Smite, M. Svahnberg, and R. Torkar. “Quality Evaluation for the Licentiate—A Swedish Intermediate Research Degree”, Swedish National Agency for Higher Education’s Conference on Quality, May 13–14, 2009.
  38. Actual and predicted fault count dataActual and predicted fault count data (Afzal et al., 2008).
  39. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. “Prediction of fault count data using genetic programming,” In Proceedings of the 2008 Multi-topic Conference (INMIC’08), Dec. 23–24, 2008. 10.1109/INMIC.2008.4777762
  40. W. Afzal and R. Torkar. “Lessons from applying experimentation in software engineering prediction systems,” In Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Software Productivity Analysis and Cost Estimation (SPACE’08), co-located with 15th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC’08), Dec. 3–5, 2008.
  41. M. Bäumer, P. Seidler, R. Torkar, P. Tomaszewski, L.-O. Damm, and R. Feldt. “Predicting fault inflow in highly iterative software development processes: An industrial evaluation,” In Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE’08), Nov. 11-14, 2008.
  42. W. Afzal and R. Torkar. “Suitability of genetic programming for software reliability growth modeling,” In Proceedings of the International Symposium on Computer Science and Its Applications (CSA’08), Oct. 13-15, 2008. 10.1109/CSA.2008.13
  43. Boxplots of residualsBoxplots of residuals (Afzal & Torkar, 2008).
  44. W. Afzal and R. Torkar. “A comparative evaluation of using genetic programming for predicting fault count data,” In Proceedings of the 2008 the Third international Conference on Software Engineering Advances (SEA’08), Oct. 26–31, 2008. 10.1109/ICSEA.2008.9
  45. D. Šmite, N. B. Moe, and R. Torkar. “Pitfalls in remote team coordination: Lessons learned from a case study,” In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Product-Focused Software Process Improvement (PROFES’08), A. Jedlitschka and O. Salo, Eds. Lecture Notes In Computer Science, vol. 5089, pp. 345–359. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg. 10.1007/978-3-540-69566-0_28
  46. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, and R. Feldt. “A systematic mapping study on non-functional search-based software testing,” In Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE’08), July 1–3, 2008.
  47. R. Torkar, R. Feldt, and T. Gorschek. “Extracting generally applicable patterns from object-oriented programs for the purpose of test case creation,” In B. Russo, E. Damiani, S. A. Hissam, B. Lundell and G. Succi, Eds. Open Source Development, Communities and Quality, volume 275 of IFIP, pp. 281–287, Sept. 7-10, 2008. Springer. 10.1007/978-0-387-09684-1_24
  48. Tree clustering based on distanceQuartet tree clustering based on ΔVAT distances between test case traces (Feldt et al., 2008).
  49. R. Feldt, R. Torkar, T. Gorschek, and W. Afzal. “Searching for cognitively diverse tests: Towards universal test diversity metrics,” In Software Testing Verification and Validation Workshop (ICSTW’08), co-located with 1st International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’08). April 9-11, 2008. 10.1109/ICSTW.2008.36
  50. W. Afzal and R. Torkar. “Incorporating metrics in an organizational test strategy," In Software Testing Verification and Validation Workshop (ICSTW’08), co-located with 1st International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation (ICST’08). April 9-11, 2008. 10.1109/ICSTW.2008.23
  51. R. Feldt, R. Torkar, L. Angelis, and M. Samuelsson. “Towards individualized software engineering: Empirical studies should collect psychometrics,” In Proceedings of the 2008 international Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering (CHASE’08), May 13, 2008. 10.1145/1370114.1370127
  52. T. Gorschek, S. Fricker, R. Feldt, R. Torkar, C. Wohlin, and M. Mattsson. “1st International Global Requirements Engineering Workshop—GREW’07,” SIGSOFT Softw. Eng. Notes 33(2), pp. 29–32, March 2008. 10.1145/1350802.1350807
  53. R. Torkar and S. Mankefors. “A survey on testing and reuse,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software-Science, Technology & Engineering (SwSTE’03), Nov. 4–5, 2003. 10.1109/SWSTE.2003.1245437
  54. R. Torkar, S. Mankefors, K. Hansson, and A. Jonsson. “An exploratory study of component reliability using unit testing,” In Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE’03), Nov. 17-21, 2003. 10.1109/ISSRE.2003.1251045
  55. S. Mankefors, R. Torkar, and A. Boklund. “New quality estimations in random testing,” In Proceedings of the 14th international Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE’03), Nov. 17-21, 2003. 10.1109/ISSRE.2003.1251067

Book Chapters

    Posterior probability plotsPosterior probability plots of parameters in datasets with and without missingness (Torkar et al. 2020).
  1. R. Torkar, R. Feldt, and C. A. Furia (2020) “Bayesian data analysis in empirical software engineering—The case of missing data,” in Contemporary Empirical Methods in Software Engineering, M. Felderer and G. Horta Travos (eds). Ch. 11. Springer. 10.1007/978-3-030-32489-6_11
  2. W. Afzal and R. Torkar (2016) “Towards benchmarking feature subset selection methods for software fault prediction,” in Computational Intelligence and Quantitative Software Engineering, W. Pedrycz, G. Succi, and A. Sillitti (eds). Ch. 3. Springer. 10.1007/978-3-319
  3. W. Afzal, R. Torkar, R. Feldt, and T. Gorschek (2009) “Genetic programming for cross-release fault count predictions in large and complex software projects,” in Evolutionary Computation and Optimization Algorithms in Software Engineering, M. Chis (ed). Ch. 6. Hershey:IGI Global. 10.4018/978-1-61520-809-8.ch00